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This resulted in a seriously flawed history in which Sarah Caldwell, the person, is largely obscured by the myth she liked to create about herself. We do not find much about her personal life, about her interest in things beyond opera and music, and how she grew to be both literally and figuratively larger than life.

Sarah's memoirs use her very selective memory to excise problems and failures, and to settle grudges.


Whole boards of directors, rafts of major donors, artists and musicians are completely ignored. The former Massachusetts Senator Edward W. Cabot who opened the purses of notoriously stingy Boston Brahmins to Sarah's use. Also ignored is one of her most valuable allies, Harry Shapiro, the BSO french horn player who recruited and assembled her pit musicians. Among her omissions is Henry Guettel - theatrical royalty no less! About the only good things that came from Sarah's legendary peculiarities were the stories that those of us who worked with her could share with each other.

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The great scenic designers Helen Pond and Herbert Senn stuck with her through thick and thin. When E. Virginia Willliams, founder of the Boston Ballet, asked me to recommend a set designer for The Nutcracker, their work came to mind. To this day I think they designed and built the most glorious sets the Boston Ballet has ever owned. Beverly Sills sang with Sarah many times, and it is my theory that she got her nickname "Bubbles" as a result of her Boston engagements. Liz Donahue was famous for hiding a case of freshly chilled champagne under her table as "last call" was announced.

Liz single-handedly kept the party going well into the wee hours. Sills was only one of many who knew which table to visit when glasses were emptied. Opera singers like their bubbles. That Sarah bounced checks like a con artist is legendary. Of course, details like this are nowhere to be found in Sarah's memoirs.

As a serious writer on opera, Kessler does not dwell on this aspect of Caldwell, but offers enough important detail to gain a fuller sense of how she approached the business end of making operas.

Sarah Caldwell, at 80, Isn't Resting on Her Laurels

Kessler received only minimal participation by Caldwell in his book, so he talked to many of the artists and managers who worked with her. He was no stranger to either Caldwell or her productions - he spent many years following her career and seeing her work.

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As a result, his book provides the more satisfying look at Caldwell as an artist. He also provides some colorful insights you are not likely to read elsewhere. He writes: ""When conducting, she often wore long black dresses, frequently hiding tennis shoes or comfortable moccasins. At the time the guest-conductor invitations began pouring in, Sarah's weight was nearly three hundred pounds - distributed over a five-foot-three-inch frame. The excess did not permit her to stand for any extended length of time, and so in her appearances with various orchestras, Sarah usually elected to sit high at the podium, behind a stockade-like enclosure.

This device prevented the audience from focusing on Sarah's large rump instead of concentrating on the performance itself.

She was the first woman to conduct at the Met. She was promoted by Edgar Vincent, her publicist, as the breakthrough woman conductor - the Age of Feminism had reached classical music. Offers to conduct came from around the world, and Caldwell traveled the globe, but neglected her opera company at home. She went from being a groundbreaking artist to an overweight and undisciplined oddball.

Shultz had to intervene to prevent it from becoming an international embarrassment. She struggled on for another two years, but soon her Boston performances ceased. Her constant failure to stick to a budget, or keep her word to ticket buyers, had poisoned the well forever. There was a final attempt to resuscitate the company undertaken by Caldwell, and a new board her third or fourth as I recall headed by Bob Canon, formerly of the NEA.

It failed when Caldwell would not work with the board, nor accept its authority. Kessler tells this story: "During the turmoil of the last days of her company, a former board member recalled stopping by the theater on Washington Street [in Boston] to personally tender her resignation. Sarah was seated behind her desk inside her sanctum sanctorum ready to devour a pile of glazed jelly doughnuts. She only refers to him indirectly in passing, and he was her last hope.

It did, and then tried to start up an entirely new opera company. She died of heart failure at Maine Medical Center, said James Morgan, a close friend and a former manager of the Boston company. In , 32 years after its founding, facing debt and disarray, the Opera Company of Boston went out of business.

But in its glory years Ms. Caldwell's company was a model of bold, imaginative programming, offering musically insightful productions with distinguished casts. She had a million different ways to do one thing and was never satisfied until she had tried them all. Caldwell often took on difficult 20th-century operas that bigger companies shirked.

Her company seldom presented more than four productions per season. But from the start Ms.

Sarah Caldwell (1924–2006)

Caldwell attracted world-class artists, notably Ms. Sills and Dame Joan Sutherland. In most of her productions Ms. Caldwell was both director and conductor. Though her double role often made for opera productions with a strong vision, it just as often seemed to divide her attention, resulting in weakened execution on stage and in the orchestra pit. Her longest period of success came in the 's, when the company was thriving and Ms.

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  4. Caldwell's visibility as a conductor was growing. In , she became only the second woman to conduct the New York Philharmonic. Nadia Boulanger had been the first in and again in For the program, co-sponsored by Ms. A Time magazine cover story on Nov.

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    The opera was "La Traviata," starring Ms. Sills, who had cajoled the company into engaging Ms. She conducted 11 total performances. As a company director Ms.

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    Caldwell was notoriously disorganized and loath to delegate authority. Only 5-foot-3 and, for most her life, excessively overweight, she was an indomitable but chaotic force. Rehearsal periods were typically fraught with crises. Caldwell, sleepless and disheveled, would keep stage crews working all night and fight off creditors all day. Stories abounded of staff members' finding their boss catching naps in a stairwell or atop of pile of costumes backstage.

    Yet, even on a shoestring budget, she managed to present challenging repertory in inventive productions. One, in , was Rossini's "Semiramide," a rarely performed work at the time, with Ms. Sutherland and Marilyn Horne. Caldwell also staged the United States premier of "Boris Godunov" in Mussorgsky's original orchestration nine years before the Metropolitan Opera did. And hers was the first complete American staging of Berlioz's "Les Troyens. Caldwell faced formidable obstacles in running her company.

    Financial support from the Boston civic and cultural worlds was inconsistent, and the company lacked an adequate theater. The company finally settled, for five years, at the Orpheum Theater. But the stage was only 26 feet deep, and there was no orchestra pit. Her solution was to remove several rows of seats from the orchestra section to make room for her players. She conducted sitting in a director's chair, usually in slippers. In , the company bought the B. But the stage was just 35 feet deep, and the only way to expand would have been to claim a small street that bordered the back of the building, an idea that neighborhood residents and businesses opposed.

    Caldwell estimated. But by , with back taxes looming, she sold the theater to a Texas developer, and her company essentially ceased to exist. Sarah Caldwell was born on March 6, , in Maryville, Mo.