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Characterization of macroporous gels — The University of Brighton
London, Seller Inventory Condition: NEW. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal. Publisher: CRC Press , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Macroporous polymers are rapidly becoming the material of choice for many tissue engineering, bioseparation, and bioprocessing applications.
Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Macroporous Polymers Bo Mattiasson. Published by CRC Press New Quantity Available: 4. The interconnected macroporous channels can facilitate mass transport [ 7 , 8 ].
Porous Materials in the Bioprocessing Area
Therefore, monolithic columns with these unique structures enable high flow rates at low back pressure without drop in column efficiency, resulting in fast separation. Monolithic porous materials have the advantage to operate at high flow rates.
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However, these materials have a limited internal surface that provides a low availability of functional ligands [ 9 ]. A matrix to be selected as a competitive material for protein purification should have high adsorptive capacity. One way to increase the capacity is to create chains of hydrophilic polymers on the surface of a material on which the ligands will be immobilized.
To achieve this goal there are different procedures.
In situ radiation-induced graft polymerization is a promising straightforward technique in this area [ 10 ]. Modification of porous materials surface or in the bulk through the direct activation using ionizing radiations, such as electron accelerators [ 11 ], or gamma rays source [ 10 ] have been applied to the development of adsorptive materials. Surface modification can confer reactivity and new physicochemical properties. Currently, some materials are modified in order to use them as new systems for ion exchange chromatographic separation [ 12 , 13 ], adsorptive fibers with high capacity immobilizing pseudo-affinity ligands [ 14 , 15 ] or as a support for immobilization of enzymes and cells [ 16 ].
Characterisation and performance of hydrogel tissue scaffolds
The application of these materials to a real purification process has been demonstrated [ 13 , 17 ]. Monoliths and cryogels have very good hydrodynamic properties however they have very low adsorption capacities. One attempt to improve this property was recently reported by a co-worker research group. Cryogels with improved capacity were obtained by the previous mentioned technique, radiation-induced graft polymerization [ 18 ]. Nevertheless, cryogels have an important challenge to be solved: preparation in large scale, therefore these materials will be limited to laboratory scale applications.
In order to overcome the preparation of the porous structure, in our last research was chosen an industrial source of open-porous material. Reticulate polyurethane foams meets with this requirement. It is a chemically inert material with tridimensional structure, excellent mechanical properties high resistance and elasticity , bulk availability and low commercial cost. As an elastic material, the flexibility of rPUF also provides good stability and resistance to compression deformation.
In order to obtain a material with protein adsorption capacity, it is proposed to produce a modified reactive foam to be used as chromatographic matrix. Radiation-induced graft polymerization technique is a powerful methodology for surface modification. The adequate sample preparation and irradiation conditions are the critical issue to success in the preparation of a novel material. In a similar way, swelled cellulose fibers [ 19 ] and cryogels [ 18 ] has been successfully modified by this technique.
Despite its adsorptive properties, packed-bed chromatography normally requires extensive sample preparation, including a high degree of clarification in order to avoid column blockage and adsorbent fouling. In the last decade, polymeric macro to mega porous materials have been introduced for biomolecules capture, which, in some cases, avoid the extensive removal of biomass from fermentation broths.
In Figure 1 it is shown electron microscopy images of the base rPUF material and the modified one. Using rPUF material was avoided disadvantages such as diffusion and clogging of classic materials beads and resistance of porous materials monoliths and cryogels. Hydrodynamic characterization is currently studied in detail in order to obtain the maximum process productivity of this novel material.
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Other application of the porous materials is like storages materials. Its characteristic structure is the responsible of excellent mechanical properties, low thermal conductivity, good damping capacity, low permeability, low density and the most important one energy absorption capacity. Nowadays the trend on the development of porous-energy-absorbing materials mainly is focused on polyurethane foam [ 20 , 21 ] and foamed aluminum [ 22 , 23 ].
These new storages devices are crucial in the energy area because they have useful for conserving energy, reducing the environmental impact. Porous materials can be impregnated with phase change material for thermal energy storage in order to efficiently recover waste heat in the form of latent heat [ 12 ]. Other example of porous material used as storages is the activated porous carbons employed in gas adsorption or gas storage [ 24 ] and as a catalyst support [ 25 ].
Cellular ceramics, other type of porous material, are used in several applications in many industrial fields like catalyst supports, hot gas filter, particle filter and gas membrane [ 26 ]. The versatile applications mentioned before produced an expansion of the materials science field especially in the development of new porous materials to be applied in bioprocess area. Elsevier, The Netherlands.
CRC Press. J Mol Catal B Enzym Hoffman AS Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev RadiatPhys Chem Zhang M, Sun Y Poly glycidyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene-triallylisocyanurate continuous-bed protein chromatography. J Chromatogr A J High ResolutChromatogr J Sep Sci J Appl Polym Sci Nomura T, Okinaka N, Akiyama T Impregnation of porous material with phase change material for thermal energy storage. Mater Chem Phys