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According to the order the rank and file of these units were to be drawn from: i serving soldiers who had been sentenced to existing disciplinary companies and who had not completed their period of army service upon release; and ii civilian convicts who upon completing terms of imprisonment had still to meet their obligations for compulsory military service.

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The defence of Mazagran by the Light Infantry of Africa in The newly raised Bat' d'Af' saw active service for the first time during the conquest of Algeria. They participated in operations at Bougie in and took part in the siege of Constantine the following year.

Biribi: Discipline Militaire by Georges Darien

This action won the first battle honour for the corps and was subsequently commemorated in all battalions by memorial ceremonies on 6 February each year. However they fought bravely in the Crimean war , won high honours during the First World War and in the various colonial wars.

They also assumed the role of construction troops, building not only desert forts but also roads and bridges. In May the corps was enlarged to five battalions, each of six companies.

Biribi et Discipline Militaire

Three battalions 3rd, 4th and 5th were based in Tunisia while the remaining units served in the southern districts of Algeria. On the eve of World War I two battalions were on active service in Morocco. The permanent units remained in French North Africa, providing garrisons and mobile columns. As their integration into regular formations could have spread indiscipline among soldiers, the solution was to incorporate them into disciplinary battalions.

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Although the Bats d'Af are commonly described as penal units, their purpose was not punishment but segregation in what were officially described as "redemptive combat units" corps d'epreuve. In addition to petty criminals and military offenders, the rank and file also included a number of soldiers suspected of Communard sympathies during the s and the ringleaders of several mutinies in metropolitan regiments in the early s. In opposition with the prevailing discourse about criminality of the time influenced by Cesare Lombroso 's eugenistic theories, the disciplinary battalions of the French Republic were supposed to show that criminals could be redeemed through hard work and combat.

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ISBN 13: 9781434634368

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